CME Sessions at EANM’06

EANM’06 – CME Session VIII

October 2, 2006, 16:30 – 18:00
Preparation of PET-radiopharmaceuticals

Moderator: A. Westera (Zurich)
Co-Moderator: C. Decristoforo (Innsbruck)

H. J. Machulla (Tuebingen):
Production of PET radionuclides
K. Nagren (Turku):
Aspects of 11C chemistry in radiopharmaceutical synthesis
H. J. Wester (Munich):
Automation strategies in PET-radiopharmaceutical production

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this course the attendee will be able to:

  1. Understand Nuclear Reactions involved in the production of PET-radionuclides and discuss properties such as specific activity in relation to the production process
  2. Describe ways to synthesise Carbon-11 radiopharmaceuticals and understand impact of labelling strategies on properties of the radiopharmaceutical
  3. Discuss the ways and strategies for preparation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, understand the need for automation and the impact of various strategies on the safety and quality of the radiopharmaceutical


PET radiopharmaceuticals are gaining increasing importance in Clinical Nuclear Medicine, but also in preclinical research including small animal imaging. The use of short-lived radionuclides such as Carbon-11 and Fluorine-18 allows the synthesis of radiolabelled compounds with a great variety of biological properties. However the preparation of PET radiopharmaceuticals is challenging in terms of radiation protection, time constraints, pharmaceutical quality and regulatory issues.

This session will therefore first cover aspects of PET radionuclide production, including the ways to produce the most common PET radionuclides and will discuss the impact of radionuclide production on yields, physical properties of radionuclides such as specific activity and chemical synthesis pathways (electrophilic, nucleophilic,…). As Carbon-11 allows the most versatile design of radiolabelled biomolecules, the most common chemical pathways in Carbon-11 chemistry will be discussed in the second part and examples for radiopharmaceutical preparation given. Limitations and challenges regarding metabolic stability of the radiolabel and specific activity will be discussed.

The final part will be dedicated to automation strategies for PET radiopharmaceutical production. Major reasons for automation are radioprotection, reproducibility and compliance with pharmaceutical regulations. Different strategies used today will be discussed regarding application in research and clinical routine, efforts and costs.

Key Words:

PET Radiochemistry, Cyclotron, specific activity, Carbon-11, Automation, Synthesis Modules

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